3 years ago

Chemistry and Enzymology of Disulfide Cross-Linking in Proteins

Chemistry and Enzymology of Disulfide Cross-Linking in Proteins
Colin Thorpe, Deborah Fass
Cysteine thiols are among the most reactive functional groups in proteins, and their pairing in disulfide linkages is a common post-translational modification in proteins entering the secretory pathway. This modest amino acid alteration, the mere removal of a pair of hydrogen atoms from juxtaposed cysteine residues, contrasts with the substantial changes that characterize most other post-translational reactions. However, the wide variety of proteins that contain disulfides, the profound impact of cross-linking on the behavior of the protein polymer, the numerous and diverse players in intracellular pathways for disulfide formation, and the distinct biological settings in which disulfide bond formation can take place belie the simplicity of the process. Here we lay the groundwork for appreciating the mechanisms and consequences of disulfide bond formation in vivo by reviewing chemical principles underlying cysteine pairing and oxidation. We then show how enzymes tune redox-active cofactors and recruit oxidants to improve the specificity and efficiency of disulfide formation. Finally, we discuss disulfide bond formation in a cellular context and identify important principles that contribute to productive thiol oxidation in complex, crowded, dynamic environments.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00123

DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00123

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.