3 years ago

Entirely S-protected chitosan: A promising mucoadhesive excipient for metronidazole vaginal tablets

Entirely S-protected chitosan: A promising mucoadhesive excipient for metronidazole vaginal tablets
Synthesis and evaluation of an entirely S-protected chitosan as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery. Methods N-acetyl-cysteine was linked to 6-mercaptonicotinamide via disulphide exchange reaction. The obtained ligand, NAC-6-MNA, was subsequently attached to chitosan by carbodiimide mediated amide bond formation in two concentrations. The synthesized S-protected chitosan was chemically characterized and mucoadhesive properties and stability against oxidation were investigated. Moreover, metronidazole tablets comprising the S-protected chitosan were evaluated regarding water uptake capacity, disintegration behaviour, residence time on vaginal mucosa, release of the encapsulated drug and antimicrobial activity. Results S-protected chitosan displayed 160±19 (CS-MNA-160) and 320±38 (CS-MNA-320) µmol of ligand per gram of polymer. At pH 4.2, CS-MNA-160 and CS-MNA-320 showed 5.2-fold and 6.2-fold increase in mucus viscosity in comparison to unmodified chitosan (One-way ANOVA, p<0.001), whereas, 9.9-fold (CS-MNA-160) and 15.6-fold (CS-MNA-320) (One-way ANOVA, p<0.001) increase in viscosity was measured at pH 6. The S-protected chitosan remained stable against oxidation in presence of 0.5% v/v hydrogen peroxide. Metronidazole tablets consisting in S-protected chitosan showed prolonged residence time on vaginal mucosa and improved water uptake capacity and disintegration time in comparison to tablets consisting of unmodified chitosan. Moreover, CS-MNA-320 metronidazole tablets displayed prolonged drug release and antimicrobial activity. Conclusions On the basis of the achieved results, entirely S-protected chitosan represents a promising excipient for the development of metronidazole vaginal tablets. Statement of significance S-protected thiomers are polymers modified with thiol groups protected by aromatic ligands and characterized by strong mucoadhesive properties and high stability against oxidation. Up to date, the entirely S-protection of thiol groups was achieved via the synthesis of the ligand 2-((2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)disulfanyl)nicotinic acid) which can be directly bound to the backbone of polymers bearing carboxylic moieties as pectin. However, this ligand is not suitable for positively charged polymers due to the negative charge. In this paper, the synthesis of a suitable ligand for the entirely S-protection of positively charged polymers is presented. The first entirely S-protected chitosan was synthetized, characterized and its mucoadhesive properties were assessed. Moreover, metronidazole tablets comprising the entirely S-protected chitosan were developed and evaluated as vaginal drug delivery system.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S174270611730630X

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