5 years ago

Cost-effectiveness of a potential group B streptococcal vaccine for pregnant women in the United States

In the U.S., intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus (GBS) has reduced GBS disease in the first week of life (early-onset/EOGBS). Nonetheless, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, including 1000 late-onset (LOGBS) cases annually. A maternal vaccine under development could prevent EOGBS and LOGBS. Methods Using a decision-analytic model, we compared the public health impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of five strategies to prevent GBS disease in infants: (1) no prevention; (2) currently recommended screening/IAP; (3) maternal GBS immunization; (4) maternal immunization with IAP when indicated for unimmunized women; (5) maternal immunization plus screening/IAP for all women. We modeled a pentavalent vaccine covering serotypes 1a, 1b, II, III, and V, which cause almost all GBS disease. Results In the base case, screening/IAP alone prevents 46% of EOGBS compared to no prevention, at a cost of $70,275 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) from a healthcare and $51,249/QALY from a societal perspective (2013 US$). At coverage rates typical of maternal vaccines in the U.S., a pentavalent vaccine alone would not prevent as much disease as screening/IAP until its efficacy approached 90%, but would cost less per QALY. At vaccine efficacy of ≥70%, maternal immunization together with IAP for unimmunized women would prevent more disease than screening/IAP, at a similar cost/QALY. Conclusions GBS maternal immunization, with IAP as indicated for unvaccinated women, could be an attractive alternative to screening/IAP if a pentavalent vaccine is sufficiently effective. Coverage, typically low for maternal vaccines, is key to the vaccine’s public health impact.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0264410X17311854

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.