5 years ago

Mechanisms and implications of ADAR-mediated RNA editing in cancer

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded RNAs. Inosine exhibits similar properties as guanosine. As a result, A-to-I editing has a great impact on edited RNAs, not only affecting the base pairing properties, but also altering codons after translation. A-to-I editing are known to mediate and diversify transcripts. However, the overall biological effect of ADARs are still largely unknown. Aberrant ADAR activity and editing dysregulation are present in a variety of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia, glioblastoma and melanoma. ADAR-mediated A-to-I editing can influence uncontrolled nucleotide changes, resulting in susceptibility of cells to developmental defects and potential carcinogenicity. A deeper understanding of the biological function of ADARs may provide mechanistic insights in the development of new cancer therapy. Here, we discuss recent advances in research on ADAR in detail including the structure and function of ADARs, the biochemistry of ADAR-mediated RNA editing, and the relevance of ADAR proteins in cancer.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0304383517305979

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