3 years ago

Integrating Household Water Treatment, Hand Washing, and Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets Into Pediatric HIV Care in Mombasa, Kenya: Impact on Diarrhea and Malaria Risk

Integrating Household Water Treatment, Hand Washing, and Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets Into Pediatric HIV Care in Mombasa, Kenya:  Impact on Diarrhea and Malaria Risk
Quick, Robert, Sivapalasingam, Sumathi, Kim, Sunkyung, Schilling, Katharine A., Sugar, Naomi R., Ahmed, Aabid, Ngui Muyanga, Dennis
Introduction: In developing countries, HIV-infected children are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections than HIV-uninfected children. To address this problem, the Healthy Living Initiative (HLI) in Mombasa, Kenya distributed basic care packages (BCPs) containing improved water storage vessels, water treatment solution, soap, and insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent diarrhea and malaria in children, and had community health workers (CHWs) make bimonthly home visits to encourage adherence to HLI interventions and antiretroviral (ARV) medicine use. Methods: To evaluate HLI, we enrolled 500 HIV-infected children from Bomu Hospital. In the implementation phase, from February to August 2011, we conducted surveys of caregivers, then provided free BCPs. In the evaluation phase, from September 2011 to August 2012, CHWs recorded observations of BCP use during home visits. We abstracted hospital data to compare diarrhea and malaria episodes, and pharmacy data on ARVs dispensed, between the 12-month preimplementation baseline phase (February 2010–January 2011) and the evaluation phase. Results: The retention rate of children in HLI was 78.4%. In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for demographic characteristics, number of CHW home visits, distance to clinic, orphan status, and number of ARVs dispensed, children in HLI had 71% lower risk of diarrhea (relative risk 0.29, P < 0.001) and 87% lower risk of malaria (relative risk 0.13, P = 0.001) during the evaluation phase than the baseline phase; there was no independent association between ARV use and illness. Conclusions: HIV-infected children in HLI were less likely to experience diarrhea and malaria during the evaluation phase than the baseline phase.
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