5 years ago

Substrate-induced conformational changes in the nucleotide-binding domains of lipid bilayer-associated P-glycoprotein during ATP hydrolysis.

Altenberg, Zoghbi, Fendley, Singh, Swartz, Mok, Urbatsch
P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux pump important in multidrug resistance of cancer cells and in determining drug pharmacokinetics. Pgp is a prototype ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP. Conformational changes at the NBDs (the Pgp engines) lead to changes across Pgp transmembrane domains that result in substrate translocation. According to current alternating access models (substrate binding pocket accessible only to one side of the membrane at a time) binding of ATP promotes NBD dimerization, resulting in external accessibility of the drug-binding site (outward-facing, closed NBD conformation), and ATP-hydrolysis leads to dissociation of the NBDs with the subsequent return of the accessibility of the binding site to the cytoplasmic side (inward-facing, open NBD conformation). However, previous work has not investigated these events under near-physiological conditions in a lipid bilayer and in the presence of transport substrate. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) to measure the distances between the two Pgp NBDs. Pgp was labeled with LRET probes, reconstituted in lipid nanodiscs, and the distance between the NBDs was measured at 37oC. In the presence of verapamil, a substrate that activates ATP hydrolysis, the NBDs of Pgp reconstituted in nanodiscs were never far apart during the hydrolysis cycle, and we never observed the NBD-NBD distances of 10s of Angstroms that have previously been reported. However, we found two main conformations that coexist in a dynamic equilibrium under all conditions studied. Our observations highlight the importance of performing studies of efflux pumps under near-physiological conditions, in a lipid bilayer, at 37oC, and during substrate-stimulated hydrolysis.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.814186

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M117.814186

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