3 years ago

Human Parvovirus Infection of Human Airway Epithelia Induces Pyroptotic Cell Death via Inhibiting Apoptosis.

Qiu, Deng, Wang, Engelhardt, Zou, Yan, Xiong, Ye
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a human parvovirus that causes acute respiratory tract infections in young children. In this study, we confirmed that, when polarized/well-differentiated human airway epithelia are infected with HBoV1 in vitro, they develop damage characterized by barrier function disruption and cell hypotrophy. Cell death mechanism analyses indicated that the infection induced pyroptotic cell death characterized by caspase-1 activation. Unlike infections with other parvoviruses, HBoV1 infection did not activate the apoptotic or necroptotic cell death pathway. When the NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 inflammasome-induced pathway was inhibited by shRNA, the HBoV1-induced cell death dropped significantly; thus, NLRP3 mediated by ASC appears to be the pattern recognition receptor driving HBoV1 infection-induced pyroptosis. HBoV1 infection induced steady increases in the expression of IL-1α and IL-18. HBoV1 infection also associated with the marked expression of the anti-apoptotic genes BIRC5 and IFI6 When the expression of BIRC5 and/or IFI6 was inhibited by shRNA, the infected cells underwent apoptosis rather than pyroptosis, as indicated by increased cleaved caspase-3 levels and the absence of caspase-1. BIRC5 and/or IFI6 gene inhibition also significantly reduced HBoV1 replication. Thus, HBoV1 infection of human airway epithelial cells activates anti-apoptotic proteins that suppress apoptosis and promote pyroptosis. This response may have evolved to confer a replicative advantage, thus allowing HBoV1 to establish a persistent airway epithelia infection. This is the first report of pyroptosis in airway epithelia infected by a respiratory virus.IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of immune cells often induces pyroptosis, which is mediated by a cytosolic protein complex called the inflammasome that senses microbial pathogens and then activates the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-18. While virus-infected airway epithelia often activate NLRP3 inflammasomes, studies to date suggest that these viruses kill the airway epithelial cells via the apoptotic or necrotic pathways: involvement of the pyroptosis pathway has not been reported previously. Here, we show for the first time that virus infection of human airway epithelia can also induce pyroptosis. Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), a human parvovirus, causes lower respiratory tract infections in young children. This study indicates that HBoV1 kills airway epithelial cells by activating genes that suppress apoptosis and thereby promote pyroptosis. This strategy appears to promote HBoV1 replication and may have evolved to allow HBoV1 to establish a persistent infection of human airway epithelia.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01533-17

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01533-17

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