4 years ago

Optimal dose and duration of amoxicillin-plus-metronidazole as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials

Kelly McGowan, Troy McGowan, Saso Ivanovski
Aim This systematic review aimed to determine the optimum dose and duration of amoxicillin-plus-metronidazole prescribed as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. Methods Electronic searching identified 376 records, of which 18 were eligible blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trials. The primary outcomes assessed were periodontal pocket depth and clinical attachment level at 3-months, and secondary outcomes were adverse events and compliance. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare lower and higher doses, and 7- and 14-day courses. Results Meta-analysis showed a small beneficial effect of adjunctive amoxicillin-plus-metronidazole for each primary outcome, but there was less than 0.1mm variation with antibiotic dose or duration. Risk differences for adverse events in the higher dose and longer duration groups were minimally greater (0.04 and 0.05 respectively), and there was one report of anaphylaxis. 1.3% of patients were not fully compliant. Conclusion There was no clinically meaningful difference between different doses or duration of amoxicillin-plus-metronidazole at three months post-treatment. Without compelling evidence to suggest that any one regimen performed superiorly, principles of responsible antibiotic use generally recommend the highest dose for the shortest duration of time to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, a 7-day regimen of 500/500mg or 500/400mg of amoxicillin and metronidazole would be most appropriate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/jcpe.12830

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