4 years ago

Gain-of-Function Mutations in G-protein Coupled Receptor Genes Associated with Human Endocrine Disorders

Erina Suzuki, Tsutomu Ogata, Mami Miyado, Maki Igarashi, Maki Fukami
The human genome encodes more than 700 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), many of which are involved in hormone secretion. To date, more than 100 gain-of-function (activating) mutations in at least ten genes for GPCRs, in addition to several loss-of-function mutations, have been implicated in human endocrine disorders. Previously reported gain-of-function GPCR mutations comprise various missense substitutions, frameshift mutations, intragenic inframe deletions, and copy-number gains. Such mutations appear in both germline and somatic tumour cells, and lead to various hormonal abnormalities reflecting excessive receptor activity. Phenotypic consequences of these mutations include distinctive endocrine syndromes, as well as relatively common hormonal abnormalities. Such mutations encode hyperfunctioning receptors with increased constitutive activity, broadened ligand specificity, increased ligand sensitivity, and/or delayed receptor desensitization. Furthermore, recent studies proposed a paradoxical gain-of-function mechanism caused by inactive GPCR mutants. Molecular diagnosis of GPCR activating mutations serves to improve the clinical management of mutation-positive patients. This review aims to introduce new aspects regarding gain-of-function mutations in GPCR genes associated with endocrine disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/cen.13496

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