Fate of triclocarban in agricultural soils after biosolid applications
Triclocarban [N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) urea] (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent utilized in a variety of consumer products. It is commonly released into domestic wastewaters and upon treatment, it is known to accumulate in biosolids. This study examines the occurrence of TCC in biosolids and its long-term fate in biosolid-treated soils. TCC levels in the biosolids from a large waste water treatment plant (WWTP) over 2 years showed little variability at 18,800 ± 700 ng g−1 dry wt. (mean ± SEM). Surface soil samples (top 10 cm) were collected from 26 commercial farms located in northern VA, US that had received biosolid applications from the WWTP. Samples were grouped as farms receiving no biosolids, farms with a single biosolid application, and those receiving multiple biosolid applications from 1992 to 2006. Our results illustrate that TCC soil residues remained years after biosolid application. The two most important parameters controlling TCC topsoil concentrations were the biosolid application rate and the period since the last application. No TCC removal was observed in farms where the time since biosolid application was between 7 and 9 months. TCC concentration analyzed 7 and 8 years after biosolid applications were 45.8 ± 6.1 and 72.4 ± 15.3 ng g−1 dry wt., respectively, showing its persistence in soils and build-up upon multiple biosolid applications. A soil TCC half-life of 287.5 ± 45.5 days was estimated.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-017-0433-0
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