3 years ago

Effective tolerance based on resource reallocation is a virus-specific defence in Arabidopsis thaliana

Aayushi Shukla, Fernando García-Arenal, Israel Pagán
Plant viruses often harm their hosts, which have developed mechanisms to prevent or minimise the effects of virus infection. Resistance and tolerance are the two main plant defences to pathogens. Although resistance to plants viruses has been extensively studied, tolerance has received much less attention. Theory predicts that tolerance to low virulent parasites would be achieved through resource reallocation from growth to reproduction, whereas tolerance to high virulent parasites would be attained through shortening of the pre-reproductive period. We have previously shown that tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a relatively low virulent virus in this host, accords to these predictions. However, whether other viruses trigger the same response, and how A. thaliana cope with highly virulent virus infections remains unexplored. To address these questions, we have challenged six A. thaliana wild genotypes with five viruses with different genomic structures, life histories and transmission modes. In these plants, we quantified virus multiplication, virulence, effects of infection on plant growth and reproduction, and on the developmental schedule. Our results indicated that virus multiplication varied according to the virus x host genotype interaction. Conversely, effective tolerance was observed only upon CMV infection, and was associated with resource reallocation from growth to reproduction. Tolerance to the other viruses was observed only in specific host-virus combinations, and, at odds with theoretical predictions, it was linked to longer pre-reproductive periods. These findings only partially agree with theoretical predictions, and contribute to a better understanding of pathogenic processes in plant-virus interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12629

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