Antibody-dependent enhancement of serotype II feline enteric coronavirus infection in primary feline monocytes
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) has been classified into two biotypes: avirulent feline coronavirus (feline enteric coronavirus: FECV) and virulent feline coronavirus (feline infectious peritonitis virus: FIPV). In FIPV infection, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has been reported and was shown to be associated with severe clinical disease. On the other hand, the potential role of ADE in FECV infection has not been examined. In this study, using laboratory strains of serotype II FIPV WSU 79-1146 (FIPV 79-1146) and serotype II FECV WSU 79-1683 (FECV 79-1683), we investigated the relationship between ADE and induction of inflammatory cytokines, which are pathogenesis-related factors, for each strain. As with ADE of FIPV 79-1146 infection, a monoclonal antibody against the spike protein of FCoV (mAb 6-4-2) enhanced FECV 79-1683 replication in U937 cells and primary feline monocytes. However, the ADE activity of FECV 79-1683 was lower than that of FIPV 79-1146. Moreover, mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) significantly increased with ADE of FIPV 79-1146 infection in primary feline monocytes, but FECV 79-1683 did not demonstrate an increase in these levels. In conclusion, infection of monocytes by FECV was enhanced by antibodies, but the efficiency of infection was lower than that of FIPV.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00705-017-3489-8
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