4 years ago

Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the diatom Stephanopyxis turris and in vivo SERS analyses

Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the diatom Stephanopyxis turris and in vivo SERS analyses
Cultivation of the sea water diatom Stephanopyxis turris (S. turris) in a gold salt containing medium leads to the formation of gold nanoparticles. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). According to their diameter, they are classified into two groups with average diameters of around 30 and 10nm. It is demonstrated that both types of nanoparticles consist exclusively of gold. The location of the gold nanoparticles with respect to the diatom cell was revealed using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To ensure a reliable observation of SERS spectra in each measured cell, the concentration of the gold solution as well as the incubation time of S. turris in this solution were optimized. 3D Raman imaging of entire S. turris cells was performed to localize SERS spectra of compounds resulting from closely neighbored nanoparticles. Interestingly, intracellular SERS spectra were observed indicating the presence of gold nanoparticles inside S. turris cells. Further investigation shows that the SERS spectra generated by biosynthesized nanoparticles differ significantly from the conventional Raman spectrum of diatoms. While pigments are dominating the resonance enhanced Raman spectrum, SERS spectra exhibit a completely different appearance. Their bands coincide with bands in SERS spectra of various biologically relevant compounds, e.g., hydroxyurea and retinol. The biosynthesized gold nanoparticles therefore have a high potential for prospective in vivo research of algal metabolism and its regulation.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S2211926417302680

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