4 years ago

Identification of <i>cis</i>-regulatory sequences reveals potential participation of lola and Deaf1 transcription factors in <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> innate immune response

Manuel Castillo Méndez, Bernardo Pérez-Zamorano, Sandra Rosas-Madrigal, Verónica Valverde-Garduño, Oscar Arturo Migueles Lozano
The innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae involves the transcriptional upregulation of effector genes. Therefore, the cis-regulatory sequences and their cognate binding factors play essential roles in the mosquito’s immune response. However, the genetic control of the mosquito’s innate immune response is not yet fully understood. To gain further insight on the elements, the factors and the potential mechanisms involved, an open chromatin profiling was carried out on A. gambiae-derived immune-responsive cells. Here, we report the identification of cis-regulatory sites, immunity-related transcription factor binding sites, and cis-regulatory modules. A de novo motif discovery carried out on this set of cis-regulatory sequences identified immunity-related motifs and cis-regulatory modules. These modules contain motifs that are similar to binding sites for REL-, STAT-, lola- and Deaf1-type transcription factors. Sequence motifs similar to the binding sites for GAGA were found within a cis-regulatory module, together with immunity-related transcription factor binding sites. The presence of Deaf1- and lola-type binding sites, along with REL- and STAT-type binding sites, suggests that the immunity function of these two factors could have been conserved both in Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186435

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