3 years ago

Indentation Mapping Reveals Poroelastic, but not Viscoelastic, Properties Spanning Native Zonal Articular Cartilage

Indentation Mapping Reveals Poroelastic, but not Viscoelastic, Properties Spanning Native Zonal Articular Cartilage
Osteoarthrosis is a debilitating disease affecting millions, yet engineering materials for cartilage regeneration has proven difficult because of the complex microstructure of this tissue. Articular cartilage, like many biological tissues, produces a time-dependent response to mechanical load that is critical to cell’s physiological function in part due to solid and fluid phase interactions and property variations across multiple length scales. Recreating the time-dependent strain and fluid flow may be critical for successfully engineering replacement tissues but thus far has largely been neglected. Here, microindentation is used to accomplish three objectives: (1) quantify a materials time-dependent mechanical response, (2) map material properties at a cellular relevant length scale throughout zonal articular cartilage, (3) and elucidate the underlying viscoelastic, poroelastic, and nonlinear poroelastic causes of deformation in articular cartilage. Untreated and trypsin-treated cartilage were sectioned perpendicular to the articular surface and indentation was used to evaluate properties throughout zonal cartilage on the cut surface. The experimental results demonstrated that within all cartilage zones, the mechanical response was well represented by a model assuming nonlinear biphasic behavior and did not follow conventional viscoelastic or linear poroelastic models. Additionally, 10% (w/w) agarose was tested and, as anticipated, behaved as a linear poroelastic material. The approach outlined here provides a method, applicable to many tissues and biomaterials, which reveals and quantifies the underlying causes of time-dependent deformation, elucidates key aspects of material structure and function, and that can be used to provide important inputs for computational models and targets for tissue engineering. Statement of Significance Elucidating the time-dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage, and other biological materials, is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells. We used microindentation to map the time-dependent properties of untreated and trypsin treated cartilage throughout each cartilage zone. Unlike conventional approaches that combine viscoelastic and poroelastic behaviors into a single framework, we deconvoluted the mechanical response into separate contributions to time-dependent behavior. Poroelastic effects in all cartilage zones dominated the time-dependent behavior of articular cartilage, and a model that incorporates tension-compression nonlinearity best represents mechanical behavior. These results can be used to assess the success of regeneration and repair approaches, as design targets for tissue engineering, and for development of accurate computational models.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1742706117306190

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.