Detecting the QTL-allele system conferring flowering date in a nested association mapping population of soybean using a novel procedure
The RTM-GWAS was chosen among five procedures to identify DTF QTL-allele constitution in a soybean NAM population; 139 QTLs with 496 alleles accounting for 81.7% of phenotypic variance were detected.
Flowering date (days to flowering, DTF) is an ecological trait in soybean, closely related to its ability to adapt to areas. A nested association mapping (NAM) population consisting of four RIL populations (LM, ZM, MT and MW with M8206 as their common parent) was established and tested for their DTF under five environments. Using restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing the population was genotyped with SNP markers. The restricted two-stage multi-locus (RTM) genome-wide association study (GWAS) (RTM-GWAS) with SNP linkage disequilibrium block (SNPLDB) as multi-allele genomic markers performed the best among the five mapping procedures with software publicly available. It identified the greatest number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) (139) and alleles (496) on 20 chromosomes covering almost all of the QTLs detected by four other mapping procedures. The RTM-GWAS provided the detected QTLs with highest genetic contribution but without overflowing and missing heritability problems (81.7% genetic contribution vs. heritability of 97.6%), while SNPLDB markers matched the NAM population property of multiple alleles per locus. The 139 QTLs with 496 alleles were organized into a QTL-allele matrix, showing the corresponding DTF genetic architecture of the five parents and the NAM population. All lines and parents comprised both positive and negative alleles, implying a great potential of recombination for early and late DTF improvement. From the detected QTL-allele system, 126 candidate genes were annotated and χ 2 tested as a DTF candidate gene system involving nine biological processes, indicating the trait a complex, involving several biological processes rather than only a handful of major genes.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00122-017-2960-y
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