3 years ago

miR-122 Release in Exosomes Precedes Overt Tolvaptan-Induced Necrosis in a Primary Human Hepatocyte Micropatterned Coculture Model.

Roth, Lu, Holman, Khetani, Trask, Eaddy, Brock, Watkins, Ware, LeCluyse, Mosedale, Wolf
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is thought to often result from an adaptive immune attack on the liver. However, it has been proposed that the cascade of events culminating in an adaptive immune response begins with drug-induced hepatocyte stress, release of exosomal danger signals, and innate immune activation, all of which may occur in the absence of significant hepatocelluar death. A micropatterned coculture model (HepatoPac®) was used to explore the possibility that changes in exosome content precede overt necrosis in response to the IDILI drug tolvaptan. Hepatocytes from 3 human donors were exposed to a range of tolvaptan concentrations bracketing plasma Cmax or DMSO control continuously for 4, 24, or 72 h. While alanine aminotransferase release was not significantly affected at any concentration, tolvaptan exposures at ∼30-fold median plasma Cmax resulted in increased release of exosomal microRNA-122 (miR-122) into the medium. Cellular imaging and microarray analysis revealed that the most significant increases in exosomal miR-122 were associated with programmed cell death and small increases in membrane permeability. However, early increases in exosome miR-122 were more associated with mitochondrial-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Taken together, these data suggest that tolvaptan treatment induces cellular stress and exosome release of miR-122 in primary human hepatocytes in the absence of overt necrosis, providing direct demonstration of this with a drug capable of causing IDILI. In susceptible individuals, these early events may occur at pharmacologic concentrations of tolvaptan and may promote an adaptive immune attack that ultimately results in clinically significant liver injury.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx206

DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx206

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