3 years ago

The roles and applications of autoantibodies in progression, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of human malignant tumours

The existence of autoantibodies towards an individual's own proteins or nucleic acids has been established for more than 100years, and for a long period, these autoantibodies have been believed to be closely associated with autoimmune diseases. However, in recent years, researchers have become more interested in the role and application of autoantibodies in progression, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of human malignant tumours. Over the past few decades, numerous epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of certain cancers is significantly altered (increased or decreased) in patients with autoimmune diseases, which suggests that autoantibodies may play either promoting or suppressing roles in cancer progression. The idea that autoantibodies are directly involved in tumour progression gains special support by the findings that some antibodies secreted by a variety of cancer cells can promote their proliferation and metastasis. Because the cancer cells generate cell antigenic changes (neoantigens), which trigger the immune system to produce autoantibodies, serum autoantibodies against tumour-associated antigens have been established as a novel type of cancer biomarkers and have been extensively studied in different types of cancer. The autoantibodies as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis are not only more sensitive and specific than antigens, but also could appear before clinical evidences of the tumours, thus disclosing them. The observations that cancer risk is lower in patients with some autoimmune diseases suggest that certain autoantibodies may be protective from certain cancers. Moreover, the presence of autoantibodies in healthy individuals implies that it could be safe to employ autoantibodies to treat cancer. Of note, an autoantibodies derived from lupus murine model received much attention due to their selective cytotoxicity for malignant tumour cell without harming normal ones. These studies showed the therapeutic value of autoantibodies in cancer. In this review, we revisited the pathological or protective role of autoantibodies in cancer progression, summarize the application of autoantibodies in cancer diagnosis and prognosis, and discuss the value of autoantibodies in cancer therapy. The studies established to date suggest that autoantibodies not only regulate cancer progression but also promise to be valuable instruments in oncological diagnosis and therapy.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1568997217302628

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