4 years ago

The role of declining adaptive homeostasis in ageing.

Davies, Pomatto
Adaptive homeostasis is, 'the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range for any given physiological parameter in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signalling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Davies, 2016a)." Adaptive homeostasis enables biological systems to make continuous short-term adjustments for optimal functioning despite ever-changing internal and external environments. Initiation of adaptation in response to an appropriate signal allows organisms to successfully cope with much greater, normally toxic, stresses. These short-term responses are initiated following effective signals, including hypoxia, cold shock, heat shock, oxidative stress, exercise-induced adaptation, caloric restriction, osmotic stress, mechanical stress, immune response, and even emotional stress. There is now substantial literature detailing a decline in adaptive homeostasis that, unfortunately, appears to manifest with ageing, especially in the last third of the lifespan. In this review, we present the hypothesis that one hallmark of the ageing process is a significant decline in adaptive homeostasis capacity. The mechanistic importance of diminished capacity for short-term (reversible) adaptive responses (both biochemical and signal transduction/gene expression-based) to changing internal and external conditions, on short-term survival and on lifespan and healthspan. Studies of cultured mammalian cells, worms, flies, rodents, simians, apes, and even humans, all indicate declining adaptive homeostasis as a potential contributor to age-dependent senescence, increased risk of disease, and even mortality. Emerging work points to Nrf2-Keap1 signal transduction pathway inhibitors, including Bach1 and c-Myc, both of whose tissue concentrations increase with age, as possible major causes for age-dependent loss of adaptive homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1113/JP275072

DOI: 10.1113/JP275072

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