Crustal Radial Anisotropy and Linkage to Geodynamic Processes: A Study Based on Seismic Ambient Noise in Southern Madagascar
We determined radial anisotropy in the crust of southern Madagascar from the differences between the speeds of vertically and horizontally polarized shear waves (VSV and VSH), which we derived from Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion determined from seismic ambient noise correlations. The amalgamated Precambrian units in the east and the Phanerozoic Morondava basin in the west of southern Madagascar were shaped by different geodynamic processes. The crystalline basement was strongly deformed and metamorphosed to varying degrees during the assembly of Gondwana in the Pan‐African Orogeny, whereas the Morondava basin was completed with the separation of Africa and Madagascar. The different developments are reflected in first‐order differences in the radial anisotropy patterns. In the Precambrian domains, positive anisotropy (VSV<VSH) is found in the upper and lower crust, with a layer of negative anisotropy (VSV>VSH) sandwiched in between. The upper crustal anisotropy may reflect shallowly dipping layering within the Archean and adjacent imbricated nappe stacks, whereas the lower crustal anisotropy likely represents fossilized crustal flow during the postorogenic or synorogenic collapse of the Pan‐African Orogen. The negative anisotropy layer may have preserved vertically oriented large shear zones of late Pan‐African age. Within the Morondava basin, negative anisotropy in the uppermost ∼5 km could have been generated by steep normal faults, jointing, and magmatic dike intrusions. The deeper sediments and underlying crustal basement are characterized by positive anisotropy. This is consistent with horizontal bedding in the sediments and with fabric alignment in the basement created by extension during the basin formation.
Publisher URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2017JB015273
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