4 years ago

Different Shades of Li4Ti5O12 Composites: The Impact of the Binder on Interface Layer Formation

Different Shades of Li4Ti5O12 Composites: The Impact of the Binder on Interface Layer Formation
Reza Younesi, Fabian Jeschull, Kristina Edström, Daniel Brandell, Tim Nordh, Tayfun Koçak, Carl Tengstedt
Replacing the traditional PVdF(-HFP) electrode binder with water-soluble alternatives can potentially render electrode fabrication more environmentally benign. Herein, the surface layer formation of stored and cycled samples of two water-based Li4Ti5O12 composites employing either poly(sodium acrylate) (PAA−Na) or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC−Na) as binders are studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In all three formulations, the surface layer composition formed upon storage differed notably from the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on cycled samples. The surface layer under open-circuit conditions seems to originate mostly from the electrolyte salt (LiPF6) degradation. The comparison with cycled samples after 10 and 100 cycles shows a continuous build-up of an SEI layer on PAA−Na and PVdF-HFP electrodes. In contrast, on CMC−Na containing electrodes the SEI composition remains nearly unchanged. The results correlate well with the electrochemical behavior. A shady affair: Li4Ti5O12 composites containing PVdF-HFP, CMC−Na, or PAA−Na binders are characterized by their electrode morphology and electrochemical performance. The latter is correlated to the composition of the surface layer formation on electrodes either stored for 5 and 10 days or cycled for 10 and 100 cycles.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/celc.201700395

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