Chemical modification of natural clays
Natural clay samples and calcined clay varieties treated with hydrochloric acid of various strengths were characterized by X-ray diffraction, positron annihilation spectroscopy, and IR spectroscopy. The specific surfaces and pore sizes were determined by nitrogen adsorption. The constituent phases of the clay were found to be nontronite, muscovite, quartz, and hematite; after calcination, quartz, muscovite, hematite, and an amorphous phase remained in the samples. The Brilliant Green adsorption properties and tribotechnical properties of the modified clays were studied. The natural clay was surface-modified chemically by means of consecutive exposure to 36.5% hydrochloric acid and an alkaline hydrolyzate of rice hulls. Calcination at 700°С destroyed the amorphous phase to a greater extent; exposure to acid provided a greater recovery of aluminum and iron ions from the surface of calcined samples. Native clay composites with an alkaline hydrolyzate of rice hulls were shown to have enhanced tribotechnical characteristics.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0036023617090121
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