Cytosolic interaction of type III human CD38 with CIB1 modulates cellular cyclic ADP-ribose levels [Cell Biology]
CD38 catalyzes the synthesis of the Ca2+ messenger, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). It is generally considered to be a type II protein with the catalytic domain facing outside. How it can catalyze the synthesis of intracellular cADPR that targets the endoplasmic Ca2+ stores has not been resolved. We have proposed that CD38 can also exist in an opposite type III orientation with its catalytic domain facing the cytosol. Here, we developed a method using specific nanobodies to immunotarget two different epitopes simultaneously on the catalytic domain of the type III CD38 and firmly established that it is naturally occurring in human multiple myeloma cells. Because type III CD38 is topologically amenable to cytosolic regulation, we used yeast-two-hybrid screening to identify cytosolic Ca2+ and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1), as its interacting partner. The results from immunoprecipitation, ELISA, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation confirmed that CIB1 binds specifically to the catalytic domain of CD38, in vivo and in vitro. Mutational studies established that the N terminus of CIB1 is the interacting domain. Using shRNA to knock down and Cas9/guide RNA to knock out CIB1, a direct correlation between the cellular cADPR and CIB1 levels was demonstrated. The results indicate that the type III CD38 is functionally active in producing cellular cADPR and that the activity is specifically modulated through interaction with cytosolic CIB1.
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