4 years ago

Substitution of Aromatic Residues with Polar Residues in the Active Site Pocket of epi-Isozizaene Synthase Leads to the Generation of New Cyclic Sesquiterpenes

Substitution of Aromatic Residues with Polar Residues in the Active Site Pocket of epi-Isozizaene Synthase Leads to the Generation of New Cyclic Sesquiterpenes
David E. Cane, Wayne K. W. Chou, Lian Duan, Golda H. Barrow, Patrick N. Blank, David W. Christianson
The sesquiterpene cyclase epi-isozizaene synthase (EIZS) catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate to form the tricyclic hydrocarbon precursor of the antibiotic albaflavenone. The hydrophobic active site pocket of EIZS serves as a template as it binds and chaperones the flexible substrate and carbocation intermediates through the conformations required for a multistep reaction sequence. We previously demonstrated that the substitution of hydrophobic residues with other hydrophobic residues remolds the template and expands product chemodiversity [Li, R., Chou, W. K. W., Himmelberger, J. A., Litwin, K. M., Harris, G. G., Cane, D. E., and Christianson, D. W. (2014) Biochemistry 53, 1155–1168]. Here, we show that the substitution of hydrophobic residues—specifically, Y69, F95, F96, and W203—with polar side chains also yields functional enzyme catalysts that expand product chemodiversity. Fourteen new EIZS mutants are reported that generate product arrays in which eight new sesquiterpene products have been identified. Of note, some mutants generate acyclic and cyclic hydroxylated products, suggesting that the introduction of polarity in the hydrophobic pocket facilitates the binding of water capable of quenching carbocation intermediates. Furthermore, the substitution of polar residues for F96 yields high-fidelity sesquisabinene synthases. Crystal structures of selected mutants reveal that residues defining the three-dimensional contour of the hydrophobic pocket can be substituted without triggering significant structural changes elsewhere in the active site. Thus, more radical nonpolar–polar amino acid substitutions should be considered when terpenoid cyclase active sites are remolded by mutagenesis with the goal of exploring and expanding product chemodiversity.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00895

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00895

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.