4 years ago

Structure optimization of tetrahydropyridoindole-based aldose reductase inhibitors improved their efficacy and selectivity

Structure optimization of tetrahydropyridoindole-based aldose reductase inhibitors improved their efficacy and selectivity
In our previous study, tetrahydropyridoindoles carboxymethylated in position 8 were identified as aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors with mild efficacy and selectivity yet with significant antioxidant activity. In the present study we proceeded with optimization of the tetrahydropyridoindole scaffold by shifting the carboxymethyl pharmacophore from position 8 to position 5, with the aim to improve the biological activity. Commercial databases were screened for the presence of tetrahydropyridoindoles carboxymethylated in position 5 and an experimental set of eight compounds was created. Mild inhibition characterized by IC50 in micromolar range was recorded for compound 8 with the isopropyl substituent at the piperidine nitrogen (position 2). This alkylated tertiary nitrogen is characterized by a rather high basicity (pKa ∼ 10.4) with complete protonization at physiological pH. On the other hand, ALR2 inhibition activity of the low basicity derivatives 3-7 with an acyl substituted nitrogen in position 2 (pKa ∼ -1 to -3) was characterized with IC50 values in low and medium nanomolar region. Docking into the binding site of human recombinant enzyme AKR1B1 performed for 3 revealed an interaction network responsible for the high affinity and selectivity. In ex vivo experiment, sorbitol accumulation in isolated rat eye lenses was significantly inhibited by 3 in the presence of high glucose, starting at a concentration as low as 0.1 μM. Moreover, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, compound 3 administered intragastrically (i.g., 50 mg/kg/day) for five consecutive days significantly inhibited sorbitol accumulation in red blood cells and the sciatic nerve. Molecular obesity indices predicted along with water solubility point an excellent “lead-likeness” of compound 3, with prospects of further structure optimizations.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0968089617315559

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