R$^3$-Net: A Deep Network for Multi-oriented Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images and Videos.
Vehicle detection is a significant and challenging task in aerial remote sensing applications. Most existing methods detect vehicles with regular rectangle boxes and fail to offer the orientation of vehicles. However, the orientation information is crucial for several practical applications, such as the trajectory and motion estimation of vehicles. In this paper, we propose a novel deep network, called rotatable region-based residual network (R$^3$-Net), to detect multi-oriented vehicles in aerial images and videos. More specially, R$^3$-Net is utilized to generate rotatable rectangular target boxes in a half coordinate system. First, we use a rotatable region proposal network (R-RPN) to generate rotatable region of interests (R-RoIs) from feature maps produced by a deep convolutional neural network. Here, a proposed batch averaging rotatable anchor (BAR anchor) strategy is applied to initialize the shape of vehicle candidates. Next, we propose a rotatable detection network (R-DN) for the final classification and regression of the R-RoIs. In R-DN, a novel rotatable position sensitive pooling (R-PS pooling) is designed to keep the position and orientation information simultaneously while downsampling the feature maps of R-RoIs. In our model, R-RPN and R-DN can be trained jointly. We test our network on two open vehicle detection image datasets, namely DLR 3K Munich Dataset and VEDAI Dataset, demonstrating the high precision and robustness of our method. In addition, further experiments on aerial videos show the good generalization capability of the proposed method and its potential for vehicle tracking in aerial videos. The demo video is available at https://youtu.be/xCYD-tYudN0.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1808.05560