4 years ago

Respiratory sensitization: toxicological point of view on the available assays

Arno C. Gutleb, Sebastian G. Klein, Aline Chary, Brunhilde Blömeke, Tommaso Serchi, Jennifer Hennen


Respiratory sensitization as a consequence of exposure to chemical products has increased over the last decades, leading to an increase of morbidity. The increased use of synthetic compounds resulted in an exponential growth of substances to which we are potentially exposed on a daily basis. Some of them are known to induce respiratory sensitization, meaning that they can trigger the development of allergies. In the past, animal studies provided useful results for the understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of respiratory allergies. However, the mechanistic understanding of the involved cellular effects is still limited. Currently, no in vitro or in vivo models are validated to identify chemical respiratory sensitizers. Nonetheless, chemical respiratory sensitizers elicit a positive response in validated assays for skin sensitization. In this review, we will discuss how these assays could be used for respiratory sensitization and if necessary, what can be learnt from these assays to develop a model to assess the respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals. In the last decades, much work has been done to study the respiratory toxicity of inhaled compounds especially in developing in vitro assays grown at the air–liquid interface. We will discuss how possibly the tests currently used to investigate general particle toxicity could be transformed to investigate respiratory sensitization. In the present review, we describe the most known mechanism involved in the sensitization process and the experimental in vivo and alternative in vitro models, which are currently available and how to adapt and improve existing models to study respiratory sensitization.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-017-2088-5

DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2088-5

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.