Exercise in type 2 diabetes: genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations. A review of the evidence
The biological responses to exercise training are complex, as almost all organs and systems are involved in interactions that result in a plethora of adaptations at the genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular levels.
To provide the general practitioner and the sports medicine professionals with a basic understanding of the genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations at a cellular level that occur with aerobic and resistance exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
For each of the three domains (genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular), the results of the major systematic reviews and original research published in relevant journals, indexed in PubMed, were selected. Owing to limitations of space, we focused primarily on the role of skeletal muscle, given its pivotal role in mediating adaptations at all levels.
Generally, training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle are seen as changes in contractile proteins, mitochondrial function, metabolic regulation, intracellular signalling, transcriptional responses and neuromuscular modifications. The main adaptation with clinical relevance would include an improved oxidative capacity derived from aerobic training, in addition to neuromuscular remodelling derived from resistance training. Both training modalities improve insulin sensitivity and reduce cardiovascular risk.
Taken together, the modifications that occur at the genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular levels, work correlatively to optimise substrate delivery, mitochondrial respiratory capacity and contractile function during exercise.
Publisher URL: http://bjsm.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/51/21/1533
Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.
Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.