4 years ago

Formation of environmentally relevant polyhalogenated carbazoles from chloroperoxidase-catalyzed halogenation of carbazole

Formation of environmentally relevant polyhalogenated carbazoles from chloroperoxidase-catalyzed halogenation of carbazole
Polyhalogenated carbazoles (PHCs) are a class of emerging organic contaminants that have received increasing concern due to their widespread distribution and dioxin-like toxicity. Although previous studies have suggested possible natural sources of PHCs in the environment, the formation pathways are poorly understood. Here we explored the production of PHCs from halogenation of carbazole in the presence of Br and/or Cl under the catalysis of chloroperoxidase (CPO) isolated from the marine fungus Caldariomyces fumago. Overall, a total of 25 congeners including mono-to tetra-substituted chlorinated, brominated, and mixed halogenated carbazoles (with substitution patterns of –BrCl, –BrCl2, –BrCl3, –Br2Cl, –Br2Cl2, and –Br3Cl) were produced from the reactions under various conditions. The PHC product profiles were apparently dependent on the halide concentrations. In the CPO-mediated chlorination of carbazole, 3-mono- and 3,6-dichlorocarbazoles predominated in the formation products. In addition to the less abundant mixed halogenated carbazoles (-Br2Cl), 1,3,6-tri- and 1,3,6,8-tetrabromocarbazoles were the dominant products in reactions containing both Br and Cl. The CPO-catalyzed halogenation of carbazole could take place in pH 3–7, but the formation products were pH dependent. Results of this study suggest that CPO-catalyzed halogenation of carbazole may play an important role in the natural formation of PHCs.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0269749117338538

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