Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl with mutation G143A in the Cyt b gene is the source of a difficult-to-control allergen
The saprotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is widespread in the agro-environment and produces more than ten allergenic proteins, mostly protein Alt a 1. The frequency of the Alt a 1 gene was analyzed in a group of A. alternata isolates from winter wheat kernels obtained in Poland, and the effectiveness of various fungicides targeting the pathogen was evaluated. The Alt a 1 gene was identified in four of the seven tested isolates. A. alternata colonized 35.67% kernels on average, but its frequency increased in stored grain where the presence of epiphytes was noted on 23.09 to 51.38% kernels, and endophytes—in 26.21 to 42.01% of kernels. The efficacy of field-applied fungicides did not exceed 50%, despite the fact that A. alternata is highly sensitive to propiconazole, fenpropimorph, and tebuconazole under in vitro conditions. The analyzed isolates were characterized by limited sensitivity to azoxystrobin (EC50 ranged from 0.505 to 1.350 μg cm−3) due to a mutation at codon 143 of the CYT b gene, responsible for resistance to quinone outside inhibitor fungicides, which was noted in all isolates. The spread of A. alternata can be effectively controlled with suitable fungicides and by monitoring the prevalence of pathogenic isolates in the environment.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-017-0426-z
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