4 years ago

Formation of Stable Tin Perovskites Co-crystallized with Three Halides for Carbon-Based Mesoscopic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells

Formation of Stable Tin Perovskites Co-crystallized with Three Halides for Carbon-Based Mesoscopic Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cells
Chien-Lung Wang, Yu-Pei Lin, Chen-Hsiung Hung, Chi-Yung Wang, Eric Wei-Guang Diau, Nayantara Mohanta, Yaw-Wen Yang, Cheng-Min Tsai
We synthesized and characterized methylammonium (MA) mixed tri-halide tin perovskites (MASnIBr2−xClx) for carbon-based mesoscopic solar cells free of lead and hole-transporting layers. Varied SnCl2/SnBr2 ratios yielded tin perovskites with three halides (I, Br, and Cl) co-crystallized inside the tin-perovskite. When the SnCl2 proportion was ≥50 % (x≥1), phase separation occurred to give MASnI3−yBry and MASnCl3−zBrz in the stoichiometric proportions of their precursors, confirmed by XRD. A device with MASnIBr1.8Cl0.2 (SnCl2=10 %) showed the best photovoltaic performance: JSC=14.0 mA cm−2, VOC=380 mV, FF=0.573, and PCE=3.1 %, and long-term stability. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) show superior charge recombination and dielectric relaxation properties for the MASnIBr1.8Cl0.2 cell. Transient PL decays showed the intrinsic problem of tin-based perovskites with average lifetimes less than 100 ps. Tin in: Stable tin perovskites co-crystalized with three different halide elements (I, Br, and Cl) were produced by the reaction of methylammonium (MA) iodide with SnCl2/SnBr2 mixtures at ratios equal to or less than 25/75. The best device made of a carbon-based mesoscopic electrode and MASnIBr1.8Cl0.2 exhibited a PCE of 3.1 %.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/anie.201707037

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