# P?=NP as minimization of degree 4 polynomial, plane or sphere intersection with $\{0,1\}^n$, integration or Grassmann number problem.

While the P vs NP problem is mainly approached form the point of view of discrete mathematics, this paper proposes reformulations into the field of abstract algebra, geometry, fourier analysis and of continuous global optimization - which advanced tools might bring new perspectives and approaches for this question. The first one is equivalence of satisfaction of 3-SAT problem with the question of reaching zero of a nonnegative degree 4 multivariate polynomial (sum of squares), what could be tested from the perspective of algebra by using discriminant. It could be also approached as a continuous global optimization problem inside $[0,1]^n$, for example in physical realizations like adiabatic quantum computers. However, the number of local minima usually grows exponentially. Reducing to degree 2 polynomial plus constraints of being in $\{0,1\}^n$, we get geometric formulations as the question if plane or sphere intersects with $\{0,1\}^n$. There will be also presented some non-standard perspectives for the Subset-Sum, like through convergence of a series, or zeroing of $\int_0^{2\pi} \prod_i \cos(\varphi k_i) d\varphi $ fourier-type integral for some natural $k_i$. The last discussed approach is using anti-commuting Grassmann numbers $\theta_i$, making $(A \cdot \textrm{diag}(\theta_i))^n$ nonzero only if $A$ has a Hamilton cycle. Hence, the P$\ne$NP assumption implies exponential growth of matrix representation of Grassmann numbers. There will be also discussed algebraic approach to the graph isomorphism problem.

Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1703.04456

DOI: arXiv:1703.04456v5

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