4 years ago

Isomerizing Hydroformylation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid

Isomerizing Hydroformylation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid
Samir H. Chikkali, Swechchha Pandey, Dinesh R. Shinde
A small library of bisphosphorus ligands was evaluated in the rhodium-catalyzed isomerizing hydroformylation (I-HF) of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). The rhodium complex of 1,2-bis((di-tert-butylphosphanyl)methyl)benzene (BDTBPMB; L4) outperformed the other bisphosphite and bisphosphine ligands and unveiled a moderate selectivity of 28 % and 50 % in the I-HF of CNSL monoene and methoxy-protected monoene, respectively. The resultant aldehyde 16-(3-methoxyphenyl)hexadecanal P1′ was isolated and its identity was fully established. Application of bis-phosphine ligand L4 in the I-HF of highly challenging CNSL cardanol (S3) and methoxy-protected CNSL cardanol yielded a linear selectivity of 74 %, although with reduced conversion. To demonstrate the synthetic utility of our strategy, the obtained aldehyde (derived from S3) was subjected to hydrogenation and the resultant 3-(16-hydroxyhexadecyl) phenol (P8) was isolated in 89 % isolated yield. High-pressure NMR investigation revealed selective formation of a bis-equatorial BDTBPMB–rhodium complex, which might be responsible for the excellent linear selectivity. What a nut! An in situ generated catalyst delivers a terminal selectivity of 74 % in the isomerizing hydroformylation of cashew nut shell liquid and the synthetic utility of this strategy has been demonstrated by converting the resultant aldehydes into unsymmetrical α,ω-difunctional molecules.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201700717

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