3 years ago

In Situ Crosslinking of Highly Porous Chitosan Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: Production Parameters and In Vitro Characterization

In Situ Crosslinking of Highly Porous Chitosan Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration: Production Parameters and In Vitro Characterization
Benjamin Kruppke, Simy Weil, Freya Sommer, Hans-Peter Wiesmann, Thomas Hanke, Jana Farack, Amir Sagi, Eliahu David Aflalo
Various methods of chitosan scaffold production are reported in the literature so far. Here, in situ crosslinking with glutaraldehyde is reported for the first time. It combines pore formation and chitosan crosslinking in a single step. This combination allows incorporation of fragile molecules into 3D porous chitosan scaffolds produced by simple and gentle lyophilization. In this study, parameters of in situ crosslinking of porous chitosan scaffold formation as well as their effect on degradation and bioactivity of the scaffolds are examined. The scaffolds are characterized in the context of their prospective application as bone substitute material. The addition of calcium phosphate phases (hydroxyapatite, brushite) to the macroporous chitosan scaffolds allows manipulation of the bioactivity that is investigated by incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The bioactivity is significantly influenced by the modus of changing the fluid (static, daily-, and twice-a-week change). Scaffolds are morphologically characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, and the mechanical stability is tested after incubation in SBF and phosphate-buffered saline. Porous chitosan scaffold is produced by in situ crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, combining pore formation and crosslinking in one step. Pore formation and mechanical strength are influenced by chitosan molecular weight and degree of deacetylation, glutaraldehyde concentration, and cooling speed. The addition of calcium phosphate phases to the scaffolds allows manipulation of bioactivity, as well as the liquid change regime.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/mame.201700147

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