3 years ago

Cigarette sidestream smoke delays nucleotide excision repair - inhibited accumulation of repair proteins at DNA lesions.

Guang Yang, Yuko Ibuki
Cigarette sidestream smoke (CSS) contains many carcinogens that induce DNA damage. DNA damage plays an important role in the initiation of cancer and several diseases, and repair is the major defense mechanism; however, the relationship between CSS and the repair of DNA damage remains unclear. We herein investigated whether CSS influences nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vivo and in vitro. HR-1 hairless mouse skin treated with CSS was exposed to UVB, as a result of which pyrimidine dimers (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs)) were formed and repaired via the NER pathway. The immunohistochemical staining of CPDs revealed that their repair was delayed by the CSS treatment. This delay in NER and the underlying mechanisms were examined in the human skin cell lines, HaCaT and HSC-1. Dot-blot assays, ELISA, and local UV irradiation assays demonstrated that CSS delayed the repair of CPDs and 6-4PPs. The recruitment of the repair molecules, TFIIH, XPA, and XPG to pyrimidine dimers was markedly inhibited by CSS. Semicarbazide, which reacts with aldehydes, recovered the CSS-induced inhibition of NER, and formaldehyde exerted similar inhibitory effects to those of CSS. These results suggest that aldehydes in CSS interfere with the recruitment of NER molecules to damaged sites, leading to a delay in the repair of pyrimidine dimers.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgx109

DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgx109

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