3 years ago

The Common Cytokine Receptor γ Chain Family of Cytokines.

Jian-Xin Lin, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 form a family of cytokines based on their sharing the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc), which was originally discovered as the third receptor component of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rγ. The IL2RG gene is located on the X chromosome and is mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). The breadth of the defects in XSCID could not be explained solely by defects in IL-2 signaling, and it is now clear that γc is a shared receptor component of the six cytokines noted above, making XSCID a disease of defective cytokine signaling. Janus kinase (JAK)3 associates with γc, and JAK3-deficient SCID phenocopies XSCID, findings that served to stimulate the development of JAK3 inhibitors as immunosuppressants. γc family cytokines collectively control broad aspects of lymphocyte development, growth, differentiation, and survival, and these cytokines are clinically important, related to allergic and autoimmune diseases and cancer as well as immunodeficiency. In this review, we discuss the actions of these cytokines, their critical biological roles and signaling pathways, focusing mainly on JAK/STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) signaling, and how this information is now being used in clinical therapeutic efforts.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a028449

DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a028449

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