3 years ago

Developmental Differences Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

Celso Arango, Mara Parellada, Monica Burdeus, Sandra Gomez-Vallejo
Ample evidence supports a neurodevelopmental origin in some cases of schizophrenia (SZ). More inconsistent information is available for bipolar disorder (BD). We herein review studies with a focus on premorbid (adjustment and functionality) and early developmental milestones that include both SZ and BD patients. A search was performed in the PubMed electronic database, retrieving 619 abstracts; 30 were ultimately included in this systematic review. Eight prospective cohorts, 15 retrospective studies, and 7 studies based on national registries. Psychomotor developmental deviations and general adjustment problems characterize the childhood of subjects later diagnosed with SZ or BD; they are more marked in those later diagnosed with SZ vs BD, earlier onset vs later onset, and psychotic vs nonpsychotic disorders. Cognitive impairment follows a linear risk trend for SZ and a U-shaped trend for BD. Social isolation and visuoperceptual/reading anomalies more frequently antecede SZ. Pervasive developmental disorders increase the risk for both SZ and BD, more so in cases with normal intelligence. The predictive risk of each isolated developmental marker is low, but a significant percentage of subjects with SZ and a minority of adults with BD showed signs of premorbid abnormalities in childhood. The great limitation is still the lack of studies comparing SZ and BD that include psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar cases separately. There are many cases, even in childhood/adolescent SZ, where no premorbid anomalies are found, and immunological disorders or other etiologies should be searched for. At least in cases with clear neurodevelopmental markers, rare genetic variants should be investigated.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbx126

DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbx126

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