3 years ago

Glutathione peroxidase 4-catalyzed reduction of lipid hydroperoxides in membranes: The polar head of membrane phospholipids binds the enzyme and addresses the fatty acid hydroperoxide group toward the redox center

Glutathione peroxidase 4-catalyzed reduction of lipid hydroperoxides in membranes: The polar head of membrane phospholipids binds the enzyme and addresses the fatty acid hydroperoxide group toward the redox center
GPx4 is a monomeric glutathione peroxidase, unique in reducing the hydroperoxide group (-OOH) of fatty acids esterified in membrane phospholipids. This reaction inhibits lipid peroxidation and accounts for enzyme's vital role. Here we investigated the interaction of GPx4 with membrane phospholipids. A cationic surface near the GPx4 catalytic center interacts with phospholipid polar heads. Accordingly, SPR analysis indicates cardiolipin as the phospholipid with maximal affinity to GPx4. Consistent with the electrostatic nature of the interaction, KCl increases the KD. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation shows that a -OOH posed in the core of the membrane as 13 - or 9 -OOH of tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin or 15 -OOH stearoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphaphatidylcholine moves to the lipid-water interface. Thereby, the -OOH groups are addressed toward the GPx4 redox center. In this pose, however, the catalytic site facing the membrane would be inaccessible to GSH, but the consecutive redox processes facilitate access of GSH, which further primes undocking of the enzyme, because GSH competes for the binding residues implicated in docking. During the final phase of the catalytic cycle, while GSSG is produced, GPx4 is disconnected from the membrane. The observation that GSH depletion in cells induces GPx4 translocation to the membrane, is in agreement with this concept.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0891584917306822

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