3 years ago

Interplay of GTPases and Cytoskeleton in Cellular Barrier Defects during Gut Inflammation.

Nathalie Britzen-Laurent, Rocío López-Posadas, Imke Atreya, Markus F Neurath, Michael Stürzl
An essential role of the intestine is to build and maintain a barrier preventing the luminal gut microbiota from invading the host. This involves two coordinated physical and immunological barriers formed by single layers of intestinal epithelial and endothelial cells, which avoid the activation of local immune responses or the systemic dissemination of microbial agents, and preserve tissue homeostasis. Accordingly, alterations of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions have been associated with gut inflammation, for example during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The discriminative control of nutriment uptake and sealing toward potentially pathological microorganisms requires a profound regulation of para- and transcellular permeability. On the subcellular level, the cytoskeleton exerts key regulatory functions in the maintenance of cellular barriers. Increased epithelial/endothelial permeability occurs primarily as a result of a reorganization of cytoskeletal-junctional complexes. Pro-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines can induce cytoskeletal rearrangements, causing inflammation-dependent defects in gut barrier function. In this context, small GTPases of the Rho family and large GTPases from the Dynamin superfamily appear as major cellular switches regulating the interaction between intercellular junctions and actomyosin complexes, and in turn cytoskeleton plasticity. Strikingly, some of these proteins, such as RhoA or guanylate-binding protein-1 (GBP-1) have been associated with gut inflammation and IBD. In this review, we will summarize the role of small and large GTPases for cytoskeleton plasticity and epithelial/endothelial barrier in the context of gut inflammation.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01240

DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01240

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