4 years ago

Tip-enhanced Raman scattering for tracking of invasomes in the stratum corneum

Tip-enhanced Raman scattering for tracking of invasomes in the stratum corneum
Stratum corneum is the primary skin barrier to percutaneous absorption. Since 1980, topical liposomal formulations have been proposed and successfully employed for increasing the drug penetration through the skin. There is no clear consensus on the drug penetration mechanism from topically applied liposomes, despite a vast amount of research. One of the reasons for the ambiguity is that the interactions between the stratum corneum and liposomes are in nanoscale, which makes them difficult to probe. In this study, we employed tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) to gain a better understanding of the interactions between the human stratum corneum and topically applied liposomal system called invasomes. TERS is capable of imaging at nanometer spatial resolution and can provide structural information at the nanometer scale. A sample preparation technique was developed and calibrated to enable TERS on complex stratum corneum samples. Invasomes prepared from a head deuterated phospholipid were employed to aid identification of topically applied liposomal phospholipid in the stratum corneum. Results presented in this study give for the first time a strong spectroscopic evidence along with high-resolution images to show intact invasome vesicles deep in the stratum corneum upon topical application.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0304416517302118

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