4 years ago

Static and Dynamic Disorder in Metastable Phases of Tin Oxide

Static and Dynamic Disorder in Metastable Phases of Tin Oxide
Feng Zhang, Min Gu, Tong Bor Tang, Ji Yu, Yadong Lian
The multistage transformation of Sn3O4 to SnO2 in an oxygen-free atmosphere has been studied using hydrothermally synthesized samples, both pristine and heated, with in situ X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric spectroscopy, and ex situ X-ray photoelectron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Experimental evidence consistently shows that, beginning from 250 °C, Sn3O4 converts to Sn2O3 and, from 350 °C, to SnO2, accompanied by the formation of metallic tin. These two stages are associated with frequency-dependent dielectric losses, as revealed by impedance measurements, which also indicate a significant conductivity of 1.78 eV in activation energy. It is speculated that the relaxation-like processes relate to the transition from static to dynamic disorder and then to order in the oxygen sublattice.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b04477

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b04477

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