3 years ago

Targeting immunosuppressive adenosine in cancer

Targeting immunosuppressive adenosine in cancer
Michele W.L. Teng, Arabella Young, Mark J. Smyth, Dipti Vijayan
Despite the success of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), anti-PD1 ligand 1 (PDL1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) therapies in advanced cancer, a considerable proportion of patients remain unresponsive to these treatments (known as innate resistance). In addition, one-third of patients relapse after initial response (known as adaptive resistance), which suggests that multiple non-redundant immunosuppressive mechanisms coexist within the tumour microenvironment. A major immunosuppressive mechanism is the adenosinergic pathway, which now represents an attractive new therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Activation of this pathway occurs within hypoxic tumours, where extracellular adenosine exerts local suppression through tumour-intrinsic and host-mediated mechanisms. Preclinical studies in mice with adenosine receptor antagonists and antibodies have reported favourable antitumour immune responses with some definition of the mechanism of action. Currently, agents targeting the adenosinergic pathway are undergoing first-in-human clinical trials as single agents and in combination with anti-PD1 or anti-PDL1 therapies. In this Review, we describe the complex interplay of adenosine and adenosine receptors in the development of primary tumours and metastases and discuss the merits of targeting one or more components that compose the adenosinergic pathway. We also review the early clinical data relating to therapeutic agents inhibiting the adenosinergic pathway.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/nrc.2017.86

DOI: 10.1038/nrc.2017.86

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