3 years ago

ADHD, Smoking Withdrawal and Inhibitory Control: Results of a Neuroimaging Study with Methylphenidate Challenge

F Joseph McClernon, Matt Hallyburton, Scott H Kollins, Joseph English, Merideth A Addicott, Maggie M Sweitzer, Rachel V Kozink, Jason A Oliver


Smoking withdrawal negatively impacts inhibitory control, and these effects are greater for smokers with pre-existing attention problems, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study preliminarily evaluated changes in inhibitory control-related behavior and brain activation during smoking withdrawal among smokers with ADHD. Moreover, we investigated the role of catecholamine transmission in these changes by examining effects of 40mg methylphenidate (MPH) administration. Adult daily smokers with (n=17) and without (n=20) ADHD completed fMRI scanning under each of three conditions: (a) smoking as usual+placebo; (b) 24hr smoking abstinence+placebo and (c) 24 hr smoking abstinence+MPH. Scan order was randomized and counterbalanced. Participants completed a modified Go/No-Go task to assess both sustained and transient inhibitory control. Voxelwise analysis of task-related BOLD signal revealed a significant group by abstinence interaction in occipital/parietal cortex during sustained inhibition, with greater abstinence-induced decreases in activation observed among ADHD smokers compared with non-ADHD smokers. Changes in behavioral performance during abstinence were associated with changes in activation in regions of occipital and parietal cortex and bilateral insula during sustained inhibition in both groups. MPH administration improved behavioral performance and increased sustained inhibitory control-related activation for both groups. During transient inhibition, MPH increased prefrontal activation for both groups, and increased striatal activation only among ADHD smokers. These preliminary findings suggest that abstinence-induced changes in catecholamine transmission in visual attention areas (e.g., occipital and superior parietal cortex) may be associated with inhibitory control deficits and contribute to smoking vulnerability among individuals with ADHD.

Publisher URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/npp2017248

DOI: 10.1038/npp.2017.248

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.