In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics
Pressure-driven shock waves in solid materials can cause extreme damage and deformation. Understanding this deformation and the associated defects that are created in the material is crucial in the study of a wide range of phenomena, including planetary formation and asteroid impact sites1,2,3, the formation of interstellar dust clouds4, ballistic penetrators5, spacecraft shielding6 and ductility in high-performance ceramics7. At the lattice level, the basic mechanisms of plastic deformation are twinning (whereby crystallites with a mirror-image lattice form) and slip (whereby lattice dislocations are generated and move), but determining which of these mechanisms is active during deformation is challenging. Experiments that characterized lattice defects8,9,10,11 have typically examined the microstructure of samples after deformation, and so are complicated by post-shock annealing12 and reverberations. In addition, measurements have been limited to relatively modest pressures (less than 100 gigapascals). In situ X-ray diffraction experiments can provide insights into the dynamic behaviour of materials13, but have only recently been applied to plasticity during shock compression14,15,16, Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24061 DOI: 10.1038/nature24061
Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24061
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