3 years ago

Multiparametric analysis of anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of gold nanoprisms on mouse and human primary and transformed cells, biodistribution and toxicity in vivo

Multiparametric analysis of anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of gold nanoprisms on mouse and human primary and transformed cells, biodistribution and toxicity in vivo
Eva M. Gálvez, Julián Pardo, Scott G. Mitchell, Maykel Arias, Marta Pérez-Hernández, Sebastián Menao, Pablo del Pino, Marcelo de las Heras, Beatriz Pelaz, Jesús M. de la Fuente, María Moros, Grazyna Stepien
The special physicochemical properties of gold nanoprisms make them very useful for biomedical applications including biosensing and cancer therapy. However, it is not clear how gold nanoprisms may affect cellular physiology including viability and other critical functions. We report a multiparametric investigation on the impact of gold-nanoprisms on mice and human, transformed and primary cells as well as tissue distribution and toxicity in vivo after parental injection. Cellular uptake of the gold-nanoprisms (NPRs) and the most crucial parameters of cell fitness such as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria membrane potential, cell morphology and apoptosis were systematically assayed in cells. Organ distribution and toxicity including inflammatory response were analysed in vivo in mice at 3 days or 4 months after parental administration. Internalized gold-nanoprisms have a significant impact in cell morphology, mitochondrial function and ROS production, which however do not affect the potential of cells to proliferate and form colonies. In vivo NPRs were only detected in spleen and liver at 3 days and 4 months after administration, which correlated with some changes in tissue architecture. However, the main serum biochemical markers of organ damage and inflammation (TNFα and IFNγ) remained unaltered even after 4 months. In addition, animals did not show any macroscopic sign of toxicity and remained healthy during all the study period. Our data indicate that these gold-nanoprisms are neither cytotoxic nor cytostatic in transformed and primary cells, and suggest that extensive parameters should be analysed in different cell types to draw useful conclusions on nanomaterials safety. Moreover, although there is a tendency for the NPRs to accumulate in liver and spleen, there is no observable negative impact on animal health.
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