3 years ago

Changes in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension from 2004 to 2014 among 25-74-year-old citizens in the Yangon Region, Myanmar

Ko Ko, Lhamo Y. Sherpa, Marte Karoline Kjøllesdal, Win Myint Oo, Ko Ko Zaw, Aung Soe Htet, Espen Bjertness, Marius B. Bjertness, Hein Stigum, Haakon E. Meyer
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and little is known about trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and the control of hypertension in Myanmar. This study aims at evaluating changes from 2004 to 2014 in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, and to compare associations between hypertension and selected socio-demographic, behavioural- and metabolic risk factors in 2004 and 2014. In 2004 and 2014, household-based cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region using the WHO STEPS protocol. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, a total of 4448 and 1486 participated in 2004 and 2014, respectively, with the response rates above 89%. From 2004 to 2014, there was a significant increase in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension from 26.7% (95% CI:24.4-29.1) – 34.6% (32.2-37.1), as well as an awareness from 19.4% (17.2-21.9) to 27.8% (24.9-31.0), while treatment and control rates did not change. The age-standardized mean systolic blood pressure increased from 122.8 (SE) ± 0.82 mmHg in 2004 to 128.1 ± 0.53 mmHg in 2014, whereas diastolic blood pressure increased from 76.2 ± 0.35 mmHg to 80.9 ± 0.53 mmHg. In multivariate analyses, hypertension was significantly associated with age, alcohol consumption, overweight and diabetes in both 2004 and 2014, and additionally associated with low physical activity and hypercholesterolemia in 2004. Combining all data, a significant association between study-year and hypertension persisted in different models with an adjustment for socio-demographic variables and behavioural variables, but not when adjusting for a combination of socio-demographic variables, the metabolic variables, BMI and hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of hypertension has risen from 2004 to 2014 in both urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, while, the awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension remains low in urban and rural areas among both males and females. It is likely that changes in the metabolic variables, BMI and hypercholesterolemia have contributed to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension from 2004 to 2014. Factors associated with hypertension in both study years were age, alcohol consumption, overweight and diabetes. A national hypertension control programme should be implemented in order to reduce premature deaths in Myanmar.
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