3 years ago

Synthetic genomes

Tong Tong, Shi Chen, Xuan Zou, Fei Wang, Lianrong Wang, Susu Jiang, Wei He, Chao Chen, Zixin Deng, Jie Luo, Zhiqiang Li, Xiaolin Wu
Rapid technological advances enabling the construction of designer gene networks, biosynthetic pathways, and even entire genomes are moving the fields of genetics and genomics from descriptive to synthetic applications. Following the synthesis of small viral genomes, advances in DNA assembly and rewriting have enabled the hierarchical synthesis of bacterial genomes, such as Mycoplasma genitalium, as well as the recoding of the Escherichia coli genome by reducing the number of codons from 64 to 57. The field has advanced to the point of synthesizing an entire eukaryotic genome. The Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is underway and aims to rewrite all 16 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes by 2018; to date, 6.5 chromosomes have been designed and synthesized. Using bottom-up assembly and applying genome-wide alterations will improve our understanding of genome structure and function. This approach will not only provide a platform for systematic studies of eukaryotic chromosomes but will also generate diverse "streamlined" strains that are potentially suitable for medical and industrial applications. Here, we review the current state of synthetic genome research and discuss potential applications of this emerging technology.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/anie.201708741

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