Rapid insight into C60 influence on biological functions of proteins
Experimental methods of investigations of nanoparticle (NP)–protein interactions are limited, because they require a high amount of samples and the NPs tend to interfere with spectral results. Therefore, molecular modeling is a commonly accepted tool in such kind of investigations. Examining the molecule toxicity on the molecular level, we usually want to know, mainly, the location of the ligand on the protein surface and what is an influence of such a contact on the biological functions of the protein. In the presented work, we demonstrate that multiple-docking of the ligand from a random start and with large grid volume, to let the ligand search the whole protein surface, allows to find the best binding sites and gives reliable results considering ligand–protein interactions. In the present work, we have constructed six models of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids proteins: α1-antitripsin, albumin, ceruloplasmin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and transferrin with fullerene, C60 utilizing molecular docking methods. The most probable results were examined with steered molecular dynamics (SMD) to see, if the simple docking method is able to predict the fullerene binding affinity. Albumin and lysozyme were already widely investigated and literature data is available for their complexes with fullerene C60 and/or its derivatives. Thus, we used these two models as a reference set to validate the used molecular modeling methods. With our best knowledge, interactions of the remaining four proteins with NPs have never been investigated in detail before. Our results indicate that fullerene C60 readily interacts with all studied proteins and may have a large impact on their biological functions.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11224-017-0957-4