Depressive Symptoms, Alcohol and Drug Use, and Physical and Sexual Abuse Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kisumu, Kenya: The Anza Mapema Study
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately burdened by depressive symptoms and psychosocial conditions including alcohol and substance abuse as well as physical and sexual abuse. We examined sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms at baseline among a cohort of MSM in Kisumu, Kenya. Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Personal Health Questionnaire 9 instrument and examined dichotomously. We performed multivariable modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors for the binary outcome. Among 711 participants: 11.4% reported severe depressive symptoms; 50.1% reported harmful alcohol abuse; 23.8% reported moderate substance abuse; 80.9% reported any childhood physical or sexual abuse; and 39.1% experienced recent trauma due to same-sex behaviors. In the final multivariable model, severe depressive symptoms were more common for men who were ≥ 30 years old, had completed ≤ 8 years of education, had experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse, and had recently experienced trauma due to same-sex behaviors. Our results demonstrate that comprehensive services capable of identifying and addressing depressive symptoms, alcohol and substance abuse, and physical and sexual abuse must be expanded within this sample of MSM.
Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10461-017-1941-0
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