4 years ago

State of the art and recent advances in the ultrasound-assisted synthesis, exfoliation and functionalization of graphene derivatives

State of the art and recent advances in the ultrasound-assisted synthesis, exfoliation and functionalization of graphene derivatives
Sonochemistry, an almost a century old technique was predominantly employed in the cleaning and extraction processes but this tool has now slowly gained tremendous attention in the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) where particles of sub-micron have been produced with great stability. Following this, ultrasonication techniques have been largely employed in graphene synthesis and its dispersion in various solvents which would conventionally take days and offers poor yield. Ultrasonic irradiation allows the production of thin-layered graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) of up to 1nm thickness and can be produced in single layers. With ultrasonic treatment, reactions were made easy whereby graphite can be directly exfoliated to graphene layers. Oxidation to GO can also be carried out within minutes and reduction to RGO is possible without the use of any reducing agents. In addition, various geometry of graphene can be produced such as scrolled graphene, sponge or foam graphene, smooth as well as those with rough edges, each serving its own unique purpose in various applications such as supercapacitor, catalysis, biomedical, etc. In ultrasonic-assisted reaction, deposition of metal NPs on graphene was more homogeneous with custom-made patterns such as core-shell formation, discs, clusters and specific deposition at the edges of graphene sheets. Graphene derivatives with the aid of ultrasonication are the perfect catalyst for various organic reactions as well as an excellent adsorbent. Reactions which used to take hours and days were significantly reduced to minutes with exceedingly high yields. In a more recent approach, sonophotocatalysis was employed for the combined effect of sonication and photocatalysis of metal deposited graphene. The system was highly efficient in organic dye adsorption. This review provides detailed fundamental concepts of ultrasonochemistry for the synthesis of graphene, its dispersion, exfoliation as well as its functionalization, with great emphasis only based on recent publications. Necessary parameters of sonication such as frequency, power input, sonication time, type of sonication as well as temperature and dual-frequency sonication are discussed in great length to provide an overview of the resultant graphene products.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1350417717302328

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